# 在切断球体上的流行学习方法¶

Out:

standard: 0.11 sec
ltsa: 0.16 sec
hessian: 0.25 sec
modified: 0.21 sec
ISO: 0.22 sec
MDS: 1.4 sec
Spectral Embedding: 0.061 sec
t-SNE: 4.3 sec


# Author: Jaques Grobler <jaques.grobler@inria.fr>
# License: BSD 3 clause

print(__doc__)

from time import time

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D
from matplotlib.ticker import NullFormatter

from sklearn import manifold
from sklearn.utils import check_random_state

# Next line to silence pyflakes.
Axes3D

# Variables for manifold learning.
n_neighbors = 10
n_samples = 1000

# Create our sphere.
random_state = check_random_state(0)
p = random_state.rand(n_samples) * (2 * np.pi - 0.55)
t = random_state.rand(n_samples) * np.pi

# Sever the poles from the sphere.
indices = ((t < (np.pi - (np.pi / 8))) & (t > ((np.pi / 8))))
colors = p[indices]
x, y, z = np.sin(t[indices]) * np.cos(p[indices]), \
np.sin(t[indices]) * np.sin(p[indices]), \
np.cos(t[indices])

# Plot our dataset.
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(15, 8))
plt.suptitle("Manifold Learning with %i points, %i neighbors"
% (1000, n_neighbors), fontsize=14)

ax = fig.add_subplot(251, projection='3d')
ax.scatter(x, y, z, c=p[indices], cmap=plt.cm.rainbow)
ax.view_init(40, -10)

sphere_data = np.array([x, y, z]).T

# Perform Locally Linear Embedding Manifold learning
methods = ['standard', 'ltsa', 'hessian', 'modified']
labels = ['LLE', 'LTSA', 'Hessian LLE', 'Modified LLE']

for i, method in enumerate(methods):
t0 = time()
trans_data = manifold\
.LocallyLinearEmbedding(n_neighbors, 2,
method=method).fit_transform(sphere_data).T
t1 = time()
print("%s: %.2g sec" % (methods[i], t1 - t0))

ax = fig.add_subplot(252 + i)
plt.scatter(trans_data[0], trans_data[1], c=colors, cmap=plt.cm.rainbow)
plt.title("%s (%.2g sec)" % (labels[i], t1 - t0))
ax.xaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
ax.yaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
plt.axis('tight')

# Perform Isomap Manifold learning.
t0 = time()
trans_data = manifold.Isomap(n_neighbors, n_components=2)\
.fit_transform(sphere_data).T
t1 = time()
print("%s: %.2g sec" % ('ISO', t1 - t0))

ax = fig.add_subplot(257)
plt.scatter(trans_data[0], trans_data[1], c=colors, cmap=plt.cm.rainbow)
plt.title("%s (%.2g sec)" % ('Isomap', t1 - t0))
ax.xaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
ax.yaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
plt.axis('tight')

# Perform Multi-dimensional scaling.
t0 = time()
mds = manifold.MDS(2, max_iter=100, n_init=1)
trans_data = mds.fit_transform(sphere_data).T
t1 = time()
print("MDS: %.2g sec" % (t1 - t0))

ax = fig.add_subplot(258)
plt.scatter(trans_data[0], trans_data[1], c=colors, cmap=plt.cm.rainbow)
plt.title("MDS (%.2g sec)" % (t1 - t0))
ax.xaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
ax.yaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
plt.axis('tight')

# Perform Spectral Embedding.
t0 = time()
se = manifold.SpectralEmbedding(n_components=2,
n_neighbors=n_neighbors)
trans_data = se.fit_transform(sphere_data).T
t1 = time()
print("Spectral Embedding: %.2g sec" % (t1 - t0))

ax = fig.add_subplot(259)
plt.scatter(trans_data[0], trans_data[1], c=colors, cmap=plt.cm.rainbow)
plt.title("Spectral Embedding (%.2g sec)" % (t1 - t0))
ax.xaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
ax.yaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
plt.axis('tight')

# Perform t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding.
t0 = time()
tsne = manifold.TSNE(n_components=2, init='pca', random_state=0)
trans_data = tsne.fit_transform(sphere_data).T
t1 = time()
print("t-SNE: %.2g sec" % (t1 - t0))

ax = fig.add_subplot(2, 5, 10)
plt.scatter(trans_data[0], trans_data[1], c=colors, cmap=plt.cm.rainbow)
plt.title("t-SNE (%.2g sec)" % (t1 - t0))
ax.xaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
ax.yaxis.set_major_formatter(NullFormatter())
plt.axis('tight')

plt.show()


Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 7.034 seconds)

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